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Living Music Journal... hard-copy synopsis

Vol. 22 / No. 1             the journal of the Living Music Foundation           Fall 2007/Spring 2008



FROM THE EDITOR

Living Music's composer feature in this issue features the music of Rodney Oakes, in an extended review of a live concert devoted to his work.

CD reviews in both extended coverage on our "briefly noted" section cover a variety of releases by composers including Paul Moravec, Stephen Albert, and John Harbison.

Our feature scholarly article, by musicologist and composer Godwin Sadoh, addresses the music of noted Nigerian composer Samuel Akpabot.

            -- Carson Cooman



Meira Warshauer




John Harbison








Stephen Albert
  from top: Meira Warshauer,
Stephen Albert, John Harbison


Living Music Journal Current Index and Excerpts:


Special articles:

[An Interview with Meira Warshauer: Three Questions Before the First Night of her Symphony No. 1, "Living, Breathing Earth" by Carson Cooman] ["Samuel Akpabot: Profile of a Nigerian Modern Composer" by Godwin Sadoh]

Regular departments:

[Feature article] [Member News] [From the Editor]
[Briefly Noted] [Concert Reviews] [CD Reviews]



    SCHOLARLY FEATURE ARTICLE:

Samuel Akpabot: Profile of a Nigerian Modern Composer

--by Godwin Sadoh

The original publication includes
a photo portrait of Akpabot
with native instruments.

Instead of reproducing the Feature Article in its entirety here, we are presenting some outstanding (and enticing) excerpts from the article--

      Similar to the practice of most Nigerian musicians, be it traditional, popular, or art; Akpabot seeks to unite Nigeria as a nation in his music, that is, an intra-cultural experience.

      Samuel Ekpe Akpabot was born on 3 October, 1932, in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. He went to Lagos in 1943 for his high school education at the renowned King's College, a school well-known for its tradition in European classical music. Akpabot received significant introduction to European classical music as a chorister at the famous Cathedral Church of Christ Choir, Lagos, under the leadership of Thomas Ekundayo Phillips (1884-1969).

      In 1954, Akpabot proceeded to the Royal College of Music, London, to study organ and trumpet. His teachers included John Addison, Osborn Pisgow and Herbert Howells. He later went on to study at the Trinity College of Music. On his return to Nigeria with two British diplomas, Associate of the Royal College of Music (ARCM) and Licentiate of the Trinity College of Music, London (LTCL), he was appointed as broadcaster at the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, Lagos. It was also in 1959 that his compositional career begun. The 'highlife' idiom (West African popular dance band music style) dominated his musical compositions despite his exposure to European classical music in England.

      At the age of thirty, Akpabot left the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation for the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, to become one of the founding faculty members of the Department of Music. Between 1962 and 1967, Akpabot wrote four works which can be considered as the epitome of nationalistic creativity. The works are Scenes from Nigeria for Orchestra (1962), Three Nigerian Dances for String Orchestra and Timpani (1962), Ofala, a tone poem for wind orchestra and five African instruments, and Cynthia's Lament, a tone poem for soloist, wind orchestra and six African instruments (1965).

      Akpabot studied at the University of Chicago where he obtained a Master's degree in Musicology and later went on to Michigan State University, Ann Arbor, where he received his Ph.D. degree also in musicology. He was a Visiting Scholar at the international programs of Michigan State University where he taught courses in African music at the music department. He also taught at the College of Education at Uyo, Nigeria, where he was Chairman of the Division of Arts and Head of the Department of Music. At the end of the civil war in 1970, Akpabot became a senior Research Fellow at the Institute of African Studies, University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University). He was later appointed senior lecturer at the Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan. Akpabot was appointed Professor of Music at the University of Uyo in 1995.

      There are three major categories of orchestra compositions in Nigeria: (a) orchestra works with only Western instruments; (b) orchestra works in which Nigerian traditional instruments are combined with Western instruments; and (c) orchestra works written for only Nigerian traditional instruments. Akpabot belongs to the second category.

Three Nigerian Dances

      In the composer’s note to the Three Nigerian Dances, Akpabot writes, “the Three Nigerian Dances is an attempt at fusing what the Nigerian musician learns at Western schools with the music of his own land. The Slovanic Dances of Dvorak inspired these, which are intended to be “jolly good fun” for players and for audience. Each of the dances consists of an opening, middle, and closing section. The middle section does not modulate; modulation is very foreign to African instrumental music.” Akpabot is right about the issue of modulation in African music. In fact, there is no such thing as modulation in both instrumental and vocal African traditional music. Paradoxically, Akpabot contradicted himself in making this statement because he injected a modulation in the second dance. The Three Dances is scored for 2 violins, viola, violoncello, contrabass, and timpani.

      The first dance is the longest of the three with ninety six measures in length. Structurally, the piece is in three distinct sections like an ABA. In the opening introduction, the cello and contrabassanticipate the first phrase of the principal theme which is a popular Ibibio folk song from the deep southeast region of Nigeria, Akpabot’s ethnic area. The return of the A is very brief but marked Presto from mm. 85 to 96. The song is figured in the first violin again with canonic imitation observed in the second violin and viola. The cello, contrabass, and timpani only joined the group in m. 95 and 96 to close the B section in fff. The three sections are in E-flat major.

Example 1. Akpabot, Section A (from the Three Nigerian Dances), mm. 19-29.
(Score sample included in original publication)

      The second dance is very short in length compared to the other two pieces with only 76 measures. It is also in a three part-form like an ABA with a short introduction. Similar to the opening of the first dance, the introduction consists of an anticipation of the principal theme that is an Igbo folk song from the southeast region of Nigeria. The return of the A section consists of the Igbo song in the first violin with a steady accompaniment from the other strings and drum rolls provided by the timpani to heighten the spirit of closure.

Example 2. Akpabot, Middle Section (from the Three Nigerian Dances), mm. 51-64. (Score sample included in original publication)

      The third piece is a very lively dance based on a Yoruba wedding song titled, “awa l’egbe oniyawo” (We are the members of the bride’s group). The Yoruba ethnic group is located in the southwest region of Nigeria. Similar to the practice of most Nigerian musicians, be it traditional, popular, or art; Akpabot seeks to unite Nigeria as a nation in his music, that is, an intra-cultural experience. Nigeria is primarily made up of three major ethnic groups (Yoruba, Igbo, and Hausa) and several minority groups. Each group speaks different languages and has its own musical genres. One of the ways that composers attempt to unite these groups is to borrow ideas, rhythms, instruments, and melodic phrases from several groups in their compositions.

Example 3. Akpabot, A Section (from the Three Nigerian Dances), mm. 13-32.
(Score sample included in original publication)

      The Three Nigerian Dances for String Orchestra and Timpani is one of the few compositions by Akpabot written entirely for Western instruments. However, Akpabot uses the Western instruments to imitate African traditional instruments. Hence, the strings and timpani if played as intended by the composer will sound like African drums and idiophones. Akpabot uses various compositional devices and expression marks to make the Western instruments to simulate African traditional instruments. Other elements of African music featured in the Three Dances are parallel harmony, as well as call-and-response techniques.


(Specific resources are included in the original hard-copy article.)

     "There are three major categories of orchestra compositions in Nigeria: (a) orchestra works with only Western instruments; (b) orchestra works in which Nigerian traditional instruments are combined with Western instruments; and (c) orchestra works written for only Nigerian traditional instruments."


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Three Questions Before the First Night: Meira Warshauer speaks to Carson Cooman about her work Symphony No. 1, “Living, Breathing Earth”


2nd portrait of Meira Warshauer at the piano not in online version
(Meira Warshauer at the piano)

      "My music is inspired by my living. In this case, I was very moved by the image of the rainforests as “lungs of the earth,” and I began to imagine the earth breathing."

            Meira Warshauer (b. 1949) is an active American composer based in South Carolina. She studied composition with Mario Davidovsky, Jacob Druckman, William Thomas McKinley, and Gordon Goodwin. Her works have been performed and recorded to critical acclaim throughout the United States and in Israel, Europe, South America, and Asia. She has received numerous awards from ASCAP as well as the American Music Center, Meet the Composer, and the South Carolina Arts Commission. She was awarded an Artist Fellowship in Music by the S.C. Arts Commission in 1994, and in 2000, received the first Art and Cultural Achievement Award from the Jewish Historical Society of South Carolina. She is a graduate of Harvard (magna cum laude), holds three degrees from the New England Conservatory of Music, and earned her doctorate from the University of South Carolina, Warshauer is an associate music faculty member at Columbia College, Columbia, SC. Her innovative course, “The Healing Art of Music,” is a cross-cultural, multidisciplinary approach to the experience of music as a source of healing.

            Warshauer’s Symphony No. 1, “Living, Breathing Earth” will receive four performances, a world premiere from each member of the commissioning consortium. On 3 February 2007, the Western Piedmont Symphony under the direction of John Gordon Ross will perform the work in Hickory, North Carolina. On 24 March 2006, the South Carolina Philharmonic and Nicholas Smith will perform the work in Columbia, South Carolina. The final two initial performances will take place on 26 and 28th April 2007 by Neal Gittleman and the Dayton Philharmonic in Dayton, Ohio.

            CC: You’ve written many orchestral works before but this is your first “symphony.” What made you decide to call the work that, and what connotations does it have to you?

            MW: ‘Symphony’, to me, means a major work for orchestra. The closest thing I have to that is my “Jerusalem, Open Your Gates,” which is in three movements, about 16 minutes long. My other orchestral compositions are shorter (Like Streams in the Desert is 8 minutes, Revelation is 8 minutes, As the Waters Cover the Sea is 11 minutes, and YES! is 10 minutes.) Some use chorus as well as orchestra (Shacharit, Ahavah). I felt I had matured enough in my orchestra writing to attempt writing a “symphony.” It seemed more significant to actually call it a symphony. This one turns out to be about 25 minutes long.

            CC: In the program notes for this work, you discuss a message that the work has of seeking healing for the earth. Do you find yourself coming often to these sort of subject when writing music?

            MW: Yes. My music is inspired by my living. In this case, I was very moved by the image of the rainforests as “lungs of the earth,” and began to imagine the earth breathing. I felt I wanted to really honor the amazing experience of living on the earth, being part of this huge ecosystem, and I wanted the music to be a vehicle for the audience members to connect with their own love of the earth. The healing image accompanies the hope that by recognizing what is precious to us, we will be moved to protect it.

            CC: Has having three orchestras in the premiere consortium made you think about the work any differently than you would have otherwise?

            MW: I wanted it to fit each orchestra, and was in close contact with the conductors when making decisions about orchestration. These three conductors, Neal Gittleman, John Gordon Ross, and Nicholas Smith, took on what felt like roles of guardian angels. They really tried to say “yes” whenever they could. I am so grateful to them for the trust they put in me. They had each performed my music before, but commissioning is still a risk. I hope they’ll find it worthwhile!

            Having three orchestras waiting for this symphony was tremendously motivating. It helped sustain me to know that all the work of writing (and it was a huge amount of work, even though a labor of great love), would be rewarded by four performances (one each in Hickory, NC and Columbia, SC, and two in Dayton, Ohio). Although any performance is great, it can be a let-down to have only one performance of such a major work. Of course, I hope there will be more performances after this season. But at least I know there are four performances waiting for this new baby.


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Live Concert Review: More Music for MIDI Trombone: Rodney Oakes

by Dwight Winenger, Founder of the Living Music Foundation

                We use the title “More Music for MIDI trombone” because in Y2K another reviewer audited Innova Recording 542 and found that the works on MIDI Trombone by Rodney Oakes “hold interest” and are “worthy of audition,” but he had one criticism, not offered dogmatically, but firmly, “Many tracks contained fairly recognizable commercial synth sounds.” More on that later.

                After reading the above mentioned review and overhearing a comment by a fellow-composer, “Who can listen to an hour-and-a half of MIDI Trombone?” your reviewer vowed to hear for himself this controversial distinction called MIDI Trombone. His first reaction is to rename the genre. “MIDI Trombone,” to your reviewer, suggests trombone music executed on a MIDI instrument but sounding like trombone. This is not what we found in Oakes’s case. Rodney Oakes plays a real tenor trombone (Bach M-15). It has a microphone attached to the bell used in connection with a battery of foot pedals as controller for a Pitch- To-MIDI converter (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). The result is a combination of acoustic trombone and constantly moderated synth sounds. It seems to your reviewer that MIDI Trombone as performed by Rodney Oakes would more accurately be termed MIDI-enriched Trombone.

                We listened carefully. We heard few, if any, “recognizable commercial synth sounds,” no “pizzicato string settings,” no presets as they are sometimes called. In fact, what we experienced was a daring and totally unselfconscious, yet intricate and spontaneous performance. It took place at Rosalie & Alva’s Performance Gallery at 1417 W. 8th Street, San Pedro, CA, on Saturday, April 29, 2006.

                The program notes included “Random Comments” overheard at previous performances by Rodney Oakes: “Who the hell is Rodney Oakes?” – Barney Child at a Society of Composers concert in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

                David Raskin, composer of "Laura" after hearing Erotic Rhapsody, “Tell Rod Oakes that his Erotic Rhapsody is about as erotic as picking a nose.”

                A young Dutch composer at a composers workshop by the Italian composer, Franco Donatoni, in Sienna, Italy, asked the composer, “Are you "The" Rodney Oakes?”

                Enough preliminaries. Erotic Rhapsody, mentioned above, was first on the program. The rather long description in the program boils down to inspiration by a fictitious meeting of political figures and television evangelists strongly opposed to any kind of government support of the arts. While clandestinely viewing contemporary art banned by the National Endowment of the Arts for the purpose of planning a scenario for discouraging such manner of art, they become affected by its decadence, resulting in a frenzied orgy. The piece, Oakes confesses, was created without support by any government agency or private foundation and is dedicated to the participants of the 1992 Republican Convention.

                After listening carefully to Erotic Rhapsody, your reviewer found himself agreeing with David Raskin as to the erotic nature of the piece, but the lack of lasciviousness may be planned since the work’s inspiration deals, after all, with the NEA and the Republican Party.

                Greco-Roman Songs is for sampled voice and MIDI trombone (Oakes’s definition). The poems sampled are by the Greek poetess Sappho and by the Roman Poets Catullus and Martial. The sampled voice was that of Oakes’s wife, Krysia, reading the chosen poetry translated to English.

                Mazurka for Krysia is a short work in the spirit of Chopin and dedicated to the trombonist’s wife.

                Threnody for the Victims of My Lai expresses a degree of revulsion for the systematic killing of 583 Vietnamese men, women, and children in 1968, a kind of behavior that happens in war “when adults send armed children, indoctrinated to kill or to pretend to be warriors.”

                Threnody uses a number of techniques, but it is heavily jazz influenced. The MIDI augmented trombone improvises around a stated melody.

                Homage to Chopin uses a software program, Metasynth. Metasynth uses digital pictures and interprets visual images into sources of sounds and sources to control sound. Oakes used images he photographed during the summer of 2003 in and around Chopin’s home in Poland. The resulting music does not, however, resemble the music of Chopin.

                Bone of Contention combines three sources: 1) trombone, 2) software synthesizer controlled by the trombone via a pitch-to-MIDI converter, and 3) a recorded accompaniment. The piece was created without a title. The title sprang to the composer’s mind during a music conference discussion. The word “Bone,” of course, has a double meaning…maybe triple.

                The Blue Bridge uses Metasynth to develop synthetic music from visual night images of the Vincent Thomas Bridge that connects the San Pedro section of Los Angeles to Long Beach. Blue lights were installed on the bridge in 2005, thus The Blue Bridge.

                The last work on the program was Variations on the Krakow Fanfare using Metasynth and digital images of the ancient city of Krakow, Poland. In 1241, a watchman standing guard in the tower of St. Mary’s Cathedral played a plaintive fanfare to warn the citizens of Krakow of the approach of invading Tartars. In the middle of the fanfare, an arrow was shot through the watchman’s neck. There has been a trumpet player in the St. Mary’s tower playing this fanfare four times every hour since 1241, except during the Nazi occupation during World War II. The fanfare stops abruptly at the point the guard was fatally wounded.

                At the reception, following the concert, your reviewer was able to corner Rodney Oakes and ask him point-blank about the disputable preset synth sounds. Oakes fervently claims that he uses no presets.

                One must recognize the singular bravery of Rodney Oakes. Your reviewer once composed a work for solo trumpet and computer program for a New York premiere. The concept was rejected because the “soloist would not share the stage with a computer.” Oakes shares his stage with two or three computers, a music stand, a trombone stand, and a pedal keyboard. Strangely, all that paraphernalia does not detract from the soloist and his music. It amplifies and enriches it; however your reviewer must add to the random comments heard at Oakes concerts: the multiplicity of audio, visual, and historical sources for musical materials moved one member of the audience, an attorney, to remark that the concert was remarkably “manipulation of manipulation.”

                Oakes has pioneered the use of the trombone combined with electronic devices. He has performed throughout the United States and Europe. A number of his works are available on the Cambria, the Living Artist, and Innova labels. His recent CD, “Rod Plays Oakes Plays Rod” (III Records) features the jazz quartet OGOGO, with Oakes on trombone, performing a collection of his works for jazz ensemble.


Members' News

Members of the Living Music Foundation are encouraged to send news of their activities to the editor for inclusion in this section of the journal.

Daniel Adams's Concerto for Marimba and Percussion Ensemble was performed in Flushing, New York by the Aaron Copland School of Music Percussion Ensemble, conducted by Michael Lipsey on November 16, 2007. Adams's Two Antiphonal Portraits for percussion ensemble was performed in Tampa, Florida by the University of South Florida Percussion Ensemble, conducted by Robert McCormick November 19 and in Baton Rouge by Hamiruge, the Louisiana State University Percussion Ensemble, conducted by Emory Blake on November 28.

Daniel Adams is the author of an article entitled "2007 PAS Composition Winners" published in the October 2007 issue of Percussive Notes, the journal of the Percussive Arts Society.

Adams also received an Award from the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers for his music composition activities in 2006-07.


Three recent releases from
Living Artist Recordings

Vol. 10: Semantemes featuring music by Jeremy Beck, Carson Cooman,
Dorothy Hindman, Ed Robertson, and Erich Stem

Vol. 11: A Still Subtler Spirit
music of Monroe Golden

Vol. 12: I Am In Need of Music The Gregg Smith Singers sing music of Ned Rorem, Charles Kulis, Dale Jergenson, Edmund Najera, Ralph Swickard, Andrew Bonacci, Geoffrey Kidde, and Dick Thompson

order from dwightwinenger.net/discpage.htm
or from CDemusic.org or Amazon.com


Living Music Foundation Membership

To join the Living Music Foundation and receive the next issue, please fill out the blank below and send $20 ($25 if mailing address is outside the U.S.) to: (make checks out to Living Music Foundation)

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Living Music
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Birmingham, AL 35201

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    online edition
    INDEX:
  1. Late-breaking news that arrived between issues.

    Hard-copy synopses:

  2. Latest issue: "Samuel Akpabot: Profile of a Nigerian Modern Composer by Godwin Sadoh (Vol. 22, #1, fall 2007/spring 2008)

  3. Last issue: "Traditional Cultural Resources in Electro-acoustic Music" by Robert Gluck (Vol.21 #2, Fall 2006/Spring 2007)

  4. : "Understanding Akin Euba's Wakar Duru: Studies in African Pianism Nos. I-III" by Godwin Sadoh (Vol.21 #1, Spring 2006)

  5. Vol.20 #2:, Fall 2005, "R. Murray Schafer" by Gordon Rumson

    From here on occasional links may result in your jumping to "the edge of the internet." Deleted pages may be obtained for the incurably curious by request of the webmaster.

  6. Vol. 20 #1, spring 2005, "The Creative Experience of a Nigerian Composer" by Godwin Sadoh, Joshua Uzoigwe issue of LMJ...
  7. Vol. 19 #2, spring/summer 2004, "George Walker's Visit to Miles College" by Phillip Ratliff.
  8. Vol.19 #1, fall/winter 2003, "Getting High" by Greg D'Alessio, Pop/Corn issue of Living Music...
  9. Volume 18, Number 2: Beyond Words, spring 2003, Edwin C. Robertson issue of Living Music... "Text setting"
  10. Volume 18, Number 1, fall, 2002, David Del Tredici issue of Living Music... "One Composer's Way"
  11. Volume17, Number 4, spring, 2002, Lukas Foss issue of Living Music... "Music of a Chameleon" by Phillip Ratliff
  12. Volume 17, Number 3b, fall, 2001, "No New Format" by Rusty Banks
  13. Volume 17, Number 3, spring, 1999, Aaron Rabushka issue of Living Music...
  14. Volume 17, Number 2, winter, 1999, Rodney Oakes issue of Living Music...
  15. Volume 17, Number 1, fall, 1999, Paul Rudy issue of Living Music...
  16. Volume 16, Number 4, summer, 1999, Ben Johnston issue of Living Music...
  17. Volume 16, Number 3, spring, 1999, Pat Long issue of Living Music...
  18. Volume 16, Number 2, winter, 1998, Charles Norman Mason issue of Living Music...
  19. Volume 16, Number 1, fall, 1998, Modern Opera issue of Living Music...
  20. Volume 15, Number 4, summer, 1998, Mickie D. Willis issue of Living Music...
  21. Volume 15, Number 3, spring, 1998, Rusty and Christy Banks issue of Living Music...
  22. Volume 15, Number 2, winter, 1997, Haubenstock-Ramati issue of Living Music...
  23. Volume 15, Number 1, fall, 1997, LaDONNA SMITH issue of Living Music...
  24. Volume 14, Number 4, summer, 1997, Pauline Oliveros issue of Living Music...
  25. Volume 14,Number 3, spring, 1997, P.Q. Phan issue of Living Music...
  26. Volume 14,Number 2, winter, 1996, Dorothy Hindman issue of Living Music...
  27. Volume 14, Number 1, fall, 1996, Computer Research In Music issue of Living Music...
  28. Volume 13, Number 4, summer, 1996, Craig Hultgren issue of Living Music...

    Back issues are available at reasonable cost back to Vol. 1, #1, fall 1983.

  29. spacer


LIVING MUSIC
Volume 22, No.1
copyright 2008
Charles Norman Mason (Executive Director) cmason@bsc.edu
ISSN: 8775-092X
P.O. Box 549033, Birmingham, AL 35254
internet:dwightwinenger.net/

Editor: Carson Cooman

Submission Guidelines:

Living Music is seeking lucid prose on topics pertaining to contemporary music. Articles should range in lenght from 1000 to 2000 words. LM is also seeking reviews of concerts, scores, and recordings and commentaries on competitions, recording opportunities, and residencies. To send submissions or for information contact Carson Cooman: 422 Franklin St., Cambridge, MA 02139-3114;
carson @carsoncooman.com

Living Music is published twice yearly by Living Music Foundation, Inc.
Living Artist Recordings is owned by Living Music Foundation. Inquiries regarding LMF recording series should
be sent to Charles Mason (cmason@bsc.edu).
Executive Director Charles Norman Mason
Founder and Webmaster Dwight Winenger
Vice-President of Programs Robert Voisey
Journal Editor Carson Cooman

Advisory Board

George Crumb
Greg D'Alessio
David Del Tredici
Orlando J. Garcia
Dorothy Hindman
Syd Hodkinson
Craig Hultgren
Ladislav Kubik
Dennis Kam
Hye Kyung Lee
David Liptak
Tom Lopez
Pauline Oliveros
Bruce Reiprich
Andrew Rindfleisch
Gregg Smith
Augusta Read Thomas
David Vayo
Olly Wilson





New Releases from Living Artist Recordings

Volume 6 Like Shining The Gregg Smith Singers

Volume 7 All About Time dennis KAM (Bergonzi String Quartet, Margaret Donaghue Flavin, Alan Ngim, Amy Tarantino)

Volume 10 Semantemes (works by Jeremy Beck, Carson Cooman, Dorothy Hindman, Edward Robertson, Erich Stem)

Volume 11 A Still Subtler Spirit (works of Monroe Golden)

All volumes of Living Artist Recordings are available on Amazon.com, CDemusic, and Living Music Foundation.

To request information about inclusion on future LAR recordings write cmason@bsc.edu.


Note: Members receive the hard copy issue of this information weeks before we are able to get it revised and uploaded. Sorry if you got any of this information too late.

Our Special Edition Online Journal is kept up-to-date.


 
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LMF's quarterly journal is distributed internationally as a free service to members. Living Music Journal offers its members insights into job opportunities, competitions, news articles, reviews, and interviews relating to contemporary music. We strive to keep our advertising affordable for our membership and for products and services of interest to our membership. The journal provides opportunities for members to share their expertise, bios, and general thoughts regarding new music. The journal is distributed to member composers, performers, and libraries and is provided on a rotating complimentary basis to service providers such as chamber and symphony orchestras, magazines, and newspapers. Our purpose is to provide LMF's members with a powerful and influential voice in the development of contemporary music.

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