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Living Music Journal... hard-copy synopsis

Vol. 20 / No. 2                     the journal of the Living Music Foundation                     Fall 2005


This issue of Living Music presents a diversity of articles, interviews, and reviews -- focusing as much as possible on the actual spoken or written words of living composers.

Thus, this issue contains personal interviews with composers Sydney Hodkinson, Michael Gandolfi, and Peter Lieberson.

Live concert reviews and CD reviews are covered both in extended articles and also our new "briefly noted" reviews section.

An ongoing series focusing on composers who have also been active in non-musical fields begins with two interviews of medical doctors who are also composers -- Albert Hurwit and Franklin Ashdown.

Our feature scholarly article, by author Gordon Rumson, creatively considers the work of one of Canada's most significant composers, R. Murray Schafer.

The Spring 2005 issue, in addition to our regular features, will begin an ongoing series of profiles and reviews of new music record labels and their releases -- beginning with the British NMC label.

Also to be announced in the Spring issue will the unveiling of our new Living Music Journal website -- with additional features and a back issue archive.

                                          -- Carson Cooman

R.M. Schafer

F. D. Ashdown

S. Hodkinson
from top: R. Murray Schafer, Sydney
Hodkinson, Franklin D. Ashdown

Living Music Journal Current Index and Excerpts:

Special articles:

[An Interview with Sydney Hodkinson] [Michael Gandolfi on Plain Song, Fantastic Dances] [An Interview with Dr. Albert Hurwit: Composer & Radiologist] [Peter Lieberson on Neruda Songs] [An Interview with Dr. Franklin Ashdown: Composer & Internist]

Regular departments:

[Feature article] [Member News] [From the Editor] [CD Reviews] [Concert Review]


R. Murray Schafer

--by Gordon Rumson

Instead of reproducing the Feature Article in its entirety here, we are presenting some outstanding (and enticing) excerpts from the article--

      Towards a vast series of operas, to use the term very loosely, R. Murray Schafer has directed his artistic energies for over thirty years. Patria, the Latin word for 'Homeland,' is a mythological tale of the travails of a man and a woman crossing time and space in the created world of the human. Patria is a focus for Schafer's creativity and perhaps might be considered a template for his life, imagination and beliefs.

The Prologue: The Princess of the Stars

Setting: The work takes place at a wilderness lake (North American Wilderness) at dawn. The audience arrives earlier and the entire landscape is used as setting

Synopsis:The Princess falls to earth at dawn. The Wolf accidentally wounds her and she is dragged beneath the lake by the Three-Horned Enemy. So begins Wolf's search for the Princess (Ariadne) and enlightenment

A whole vast world of sound surrounds us, enfolds us and shapes us. The composer R. Murray Schafer, who fell to earth in 1933 to the prosaic town of Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, has spent a lifetime listening to the world around him.

Patria 1: Wolfman (originally The Characteristics Man)

Setting: Performed in a traditional theatre environment this stage work is set in a modern, unnamed country. The audience are seated observers.

Synopsis: Wolf appears in his first incarnation as a refugee in a foreign land, understanding neither the language, nor the customs. He is an outsider and his spirit is crushed, ending in a disastrous hostage taking.

Canada has always been a fringe country, an outpost of the British Empire deep into the twentieth century. It is also a land of immigrants -- even now foreigners in their own land. Its cultural achievements have been mostly secondary to its economic activities as a resource rich nation. When Schafer told a guidance counselor in school that he wanted to be a painter, the teacher agreed that house-painting was a worthy profession.

Patria 2: Requiems for the Party Girl

Setting: Performed in a traditional theatre environment this stage work is set in a lunatic asylum. The audience are seated observers.

Synopsis: Ariadne is locked in the asylum with doctors and nurses intent on helping her, but unable to comprehend her mind. Wolf appears in fantasy sequences until the uncertain ending.

Since he was not granted an education Schafer obtained one himself, mastering numerous languages (including Arabic), studying philosophy, and a dozen other subjects with a relentlessness of effort that is proof of the strongest character. He was especially careful to avoid the weakness of mind characteristic of many autodidacts by very serious efforts of true scholarship. His research on Ezra Pound's music writings and his book on E.T.A. Hofmann are both exemplary achievements.

Patria 3: The Greatest Show

Setting: A Carnival, this work is staged as a fair, outdoors and at night, with various ongoing attractions. The audience attends mingling and experiencing the events of the play enacted around them.

Synopsis: A Magician compels Wolf and Ariadne to participate in a magic act. Ariadne is cut into pieces. In an attempt to recreate her the magicians accidentally produce the Three-Horned Beast who destroys the fair grounds.

One could paraphrase Oscar Wilde and say that Canada, a vast underpopulated country, went from primitivism to ennui without developing its own personality. Too close to the United States and too tied to the Mother land, Canada has shunned its own artists. Faced with this neglectfulness, Schafer chose the only path available to a man of integrity: honest, self-imposed isolation. Rather than sell out, in a market where there were no buyers anyway, Schafer decided to follow his own path. Rather than attempt to manipulate the system through hokum, salesman's puffing and catering to the lowest common denominator, Schafer seems to have 'aimed' to fail in the music business by really trying. For this reason he is an astute critic of the cultural scene and has written numerous articles detailing its failings and suggesting improvements.

Patria 4: The Black Theatre of Hermes Trismegistos

Setting: An underground chamber (preferably a mine).

Synopsis: The magical and mystical process of the Alchemical Great Work is enacted with Wolf and Ariadne present as participants, subjects and symbols of the process.

Murray Schafer is a teacher of genius. He has written numerous books and invented many listening exercises that tune the ear and increase its perceptive acuity. He is rightly compared with Zoltan Kodály and Carl Orff as one of the most important music educators in the 20th century. Once he asked a class of students what music was. Answers flowed, but after writing down 'notes,' 'staff,' 'instruments,' Schafer could restrain himself no longer and asked "Why has nobody said 'Sound?'"

Patria 5: The Crown of Ariadne

Setting: By an ocean beach.

Synopsis: A retelling of the Labyrinth legend rich in symbolic intent.

What happens when a musician writes a novel? With the novel Wolftracks, which can be found -- only found -- in used bookstores (as Schafer has arranged for them to be placed there), the book reads on one page through to the end and then cycles back to the beginning, reading the facing page -- back to the 'beginning' -- where the process repeats endlessly.

      Above is only a sampling of half the works considered in the article with comments on the composer and his output. There are also graphics: Plan of Labyrinth at Ely Cathedral and In Search of Zoroaster as well as score pages from Nature Sounds and Urban Sounds plus a Chronological Works List and CD List (selected).

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An Interview with Sydney Hodkinson

by J. Anthony Allen

      Somewhere up in the mountains, composer J. Anthony Allen got a chance to sit down with Syd and talk about his experiences in life, music, and career, as well as offer up some warnings for the next generation.

Retired in 1999 from the Eastman School of Music, Sydney Hodkinson maintains an active career as a composer, conductor and educator. He teaches in the Aspen Music Festival and School's Composition program, conducts the Aspen Contemporary Ensemble (ACE), and currently holds the Almand Chair of Composition at Stetson University in DeLand, Florida. In 2004, Dr. Hodkinson celebrated his 70th birthday -- an event honored by the Aspen Festival with many performances. Somewhere up in the mountains, composer J. Anthony Allen got a chance to sit down with Syd and talk about his experiences in life, music, and career, as well as offer up some warnings for the next generation.

JA: You were a jazz player until you were 45 (clarinet and saxophone). When did you begin writing chamber music?

SH: I had been writing music since I was about 7. I started to write a symphony when I was 12; it sounded like bad Grieg because I had been playing the Watchman's Song, and Ase's Death, etc. on the piano...fumbling through it. Plus, I had my first experiences then with LARGE manuscript paper and I wanted to fill up all the staves. I had spent a nickel a sheet -- big bucks at that time -- and I apparently did not want to waste any paper by not filling in all the staves. It was only when I was about 14 that my clarinet teacher pointed out to me that my magnum opus had some incredibly lousy scoring and that I might be well-advised to go and get an orchestra score and see how some other folks do it. I had arpeggios in the bassoons, celli, violas, low clarinets, etc. because I did not want to waste all that paper.

But I have been actually writing a long while, and when jazz started to entice me (when I was fairly young: 14 or 15), I then wrote things for my jazz friends and got the beginnings of an education. One example I can give you is writing a quarternote and two eighths -- for a hi-hat -- and thinking that was what I wanted (at a fast tempo). And so the drummer put up his set and he goes [sings literal quarter eighth-eighth rhythm]. So, that was the first and most memorable bit of small notational smarts one gets just by dealing with musical friends. I was very young. Very ignorant [pause]. I have been writing a long, long time.

JA: Do you ever still write jazz? Perhaps a better question is, did you ever consider yourself a jazz composer?

SH: Not really. Well, I considered myself a jazz arranger for many years and did a lot of it. Is that calling myself a jazz writer when I wrote original tunes? I was accepted into the Eastman School of Music based on dance-band charts, -- honest! I guess I was a jazz writer. I admired the work of Manny Albam, Gil Evans, Jerry Mulligan, and Charlie Mingus greatly. I listened to their music and tried to emulate that. But I don't know...then I just went and wrote my own music. [laughs].

JA: We have heard a very eclectic array of your music, stylistically, here at Aspen. Do you think your jazz background helped shape this?

SH: That is for others who look at the music to say, not for me as a composer; that is for an historian or a theorist. I guess the "jazz ambience" is there, it is certainly a part of me. I have fond memories of it still, and still know all those old tunes. So it is baggage that one carries through one's life. As I said, I admired greatly the performers that played it. They had incredible technique, and the competence and the beauty that these fantastic jazz players exhibited mesmerized me. I memorized some Stan Getz licks when I was a boy, Lee Konitz, names you probably don't know -- they were magnificent players. How much of that is a conscious thing? It is sort of in one's blood stream. Are you conscious of the blood flowing in your veins?

JA: I want to talk about teaching, because you have taught at a lot of different places...

SH: But not for composition as long as many people. Because my college jobs primarily were not connected with composition teaching, except peripherally. I had a student, for example, in the late 50's at the University of Virginia who wanted to study composition. But my jobs at these schools have either been in the theory departments or conducting departments throughout the majority of my life, with only minor exceptions. I spent 2 years in Dallas teaching composition at Southern Methodist University, and the University of Western Ontario, where I taught in the early 90's. There were other various times, but that was always either a one-to- two year, one-shot thing; then I would go back to conducting or teaching orchestration or counterpoint, etc. I felt a rapport with Bartok's reasoning, a kinship with the master's piano instruction: I thought God had given me X amount of "juice" for that 24 hours to do something creative, and I didn't want to share it with people like yourself. I wanted that time inviolate for me... removed... separate from the rest of the job. It's the only way I found time to compose. I didn't want to be confronted with good young composers asking questions like "why . . . do that, Dr.H?" I was too selfish. I felt that my own creative hours could somehow be stolen from me and I didn't have a lot of time -- I had these other duties.

That changed only when I was in my 60's, and so I have been teaching composition here [Aspen] now for 7 years, and at Eastman since about 1994. My composition teacher-hat is a relatively new one; but it is not all that old, worn, and full of holes either, and it is continuing now at Stetson.

JA: I found some things from your former students who seem to speak very highly of you. I want to read you this one quote that I found:

Syd Hodkinson tells fantastic stories, seems to have completely missed the politically correct revolution. [He is] blunt, unconcerned with hurting anybody’s feelings, ultimately concerned most of all with our lives, our spirits; his voice in the lowest octave of the piano, he cautions us on avoiding depression in the hard years we have ahead of us, resonating magnificently on the word "alone."

SH: Yeah, I think that is true. [laughs]. But that line about "I don't care if I hurt your feelings?" I think I do care if I hurt your feelings, but, perhaps a situation warranted that your feelings should have been hurt. I'll tell ya, I can be very simple about this: I think this is serious business. And I do not play around with any ineptitude of students. My friend George Tsontakis says that sometimes I scare the shit out of some students. I do not intend to do that, but it is serious business and I am serious about it. And I want them to try and get their work as right as they are able, depending on their own plans, and I think I can help them do that, wherever they come from, or where their heads are at. Taking a lesson in "creative writing" is not an easy thing to do. I am trying to help a youngster grope his way through very serious air. It is a voyage that is incredibly lonely. Yes. And my students better find this out pretty soon. It is easier when you are in school: you have all your friends and colleagues around you -- your peers -- to bounce off and go have beers with; to talk the daily musical talk. Your friends, I presume, are no different than mine were at an early age. They like the same kind of things -- i.e., classical music. You can go argue about the performance of a Tchaikovsky 4, for god's sake, in a neighborhood bar. I did. And learned from it. But that "something," when you are in the mix, the mélange, of all the excitement of being turned on by each other's work, can be of inestimable help when you are a youngster in finding your own way through the creative fog. But then you often find yourself upon graduation -- as I did -- with a family to support and the university was the best way I found to accomplish that. Many young composers today are finding other avenues besides college teaching to explore for "the outside job;" I support that wholeheartedly. But I went into an academic situation and then . . . there is no one other creative musicians around on my shoulder anymore! Nor a good teacher -- of which I had a couple -- telling you where to go, "go listen to this", and the things that effective teachers do. You no longer have the luxury of living amidst the commotion and ruckus of getting into arguments with your good friends. So you are by yourself; and you better learn how to handle it. I do bring that up, as your quote stated. Yes... the solitude of being a decent composer is something that must be addressed. Many music students do not possess the nature to do it, and a lot of them quit by the time they are 40.

JA: I wanted to ask you -- I found this piece, unfortunately I wasn't able to locate a score, but you have a piece titled One Man's Meat.

SH: [laughs]: The title intrigued you? I have two pieces from that time -- one is called One Man's Meat, and a brass quintet called Another Man's Poison. One Man's Meat is a piece for double bass and electronics, and was written [along with a "famous" piece -- that Chris Rouse calls "The utext of the 60s": The Dissolution of the Serial] around the time of my doctoral dissertation in the 60s, at Michigan. They are personal 'relief' theatre pieces occasioned by dealing with the stress of doctoral studies and dissertations. One Man's Meat is a piece for double bass and 2 large speakers. The speakers take over the double bass player. These are "jazz" pieces, by the way. The work starts out -- uptown, Darmstadt kind of stuff, and ends up in B-flat blues. And Another Man's Poison for brass quintet does the same thing. My first string quartet, which is for five players, is another piece of this time (in the 60s); it is written for guitar, harp, electric guitar, electric bass, and a percussion player playing on the strings of the piano. That is "String Quartet #1". It has never seen light of day, alas, alas; but it was also one of those "post-dissertation" pieces. It starts out as a serious avant-garde new music thing, and ends up with the drummer stepping back from the piano, moving over to the drum set, and the electric guitar and bass player take over, gently cooking away.

JA: That's great! I brought up One Man's Meat wondering how you feel about a place for humor in our music.

SH: Amen! Yes, yes -- a thousand times yes. I think we often are all too serious about this art we love. One of my favorite "desert-island composers" is still Haydn. He could really stick his old tongue out at you. I have many pieces-- some of which you heard a couple of weeks ago -- that are of that ilk. Yes, a smile while we listen is a fine thing; and I think there is much room for it.

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Concert Review

Honolulu Symphony, October 2005

by Jerré Tanner

The Honolulu Symphony on its October 14 and 16, 2005 concert series "East Meets West" gave the premiere of the revised version of the Hardware Concerto by Kenji Bunch (photo below) with the Ahn Trio to the great delight of the audiences.

Four years ago Music Director Samuel Wong and general manager Stephen Bloom inaugurated the "East Meets West" concept to reflect the unique ethnic blend of people in the State of Hawaii. Not only has the Symphony hosted composers, performers and conductors from Asia but has also featured Asian Americans as well. Now, as both Wong and Bloom have moved on to other venues and the Symphony Board is on a year-long search for their replacements, commitment to the series thankfully continues.

Kenji Bunch, born in Portland Oregon and educated at Julliard, is the very embodiment of the "East Meets West" spirit (Japanese-American mother, Euro-American father). Bunch is an outstanding violist, he is the recipient of the Lillian Fuchs Prize for Viola, and at only 32 a young composer worth watching. In a pre-concert interview, as a composer, he stated he is what he hears. His musical tastes are eclectic, he plays fiddle in the bluegrass band Citigrass NYC. Attendees at the Honolulu Symphony concerts certainly heard something of the range of his aural experiences.

The Hardware Concerto was written for the Ahn Trio, three charming sisters and classmates of Bunch at Juilliard, and given its premiere with the Louisville (Kentucky) Symphony. After this first round of performances Bunch made a number of adjustments and revisions to the score. On Sunday he emphasized, "I like what I hear," and declared "the score needed no further revision." Thus these Honolulu performances, the work's second, were a kind of premiere of the definitive version.

The Hardware Concerto is in three movements, the outer movements being highly rhythmical and the central movement a quietly lyrical meditation. As Bunch categorized them, the first movement is Hip-Hop with a patina of Bollywood, the second nocturne-like, and the third Funk. Taken as a whole, the piece seemed imagistic of the mating rituals of our urban young. The strikingly rhythmic outer movements presented a sound at once familiar yet parlayed into a unique orchestral sonority, accomplished with superb musical wit. Punctuated with brass and percussion, the first movement conjured up the brightly colored costumes and swirling motion characteristic of Indian film musicals, the last movement the dark dance clubs that attract youth in droves.

But it is the central, lyrical movement that really gives the whole work its real dimension. Quietly meditative, moon-drenched groves of muted strings set off the quiet solo and ensemble reflections of the Ahn trio. Violinist Angella Ahn and her twin sisters Lucia (electronic keyboard/piano) and Maria (cello) wove spiderweb tapestries of utter enchantment that rose to a slow, inexorable climax and fell back again into quite. It was an effect of utter enchantment. One was not so much reminded of Central Park as the broad, star-filled skies and moonlight-on-loftysnows of Bunch's northwestern birth city. Here, too, Maria Ahn came into her own, matching sister Angella's high-flying lines with her own deeper, darker flights. Supporting and uniting the two were the undulating murmurs of Lucia's piano, the perfect sonic companion.

In contrast, Lucia played an electronic keyboard in the two outer movements, giving just the right punch and grunge to the symphonic sound. Both Angella's violin and Maria's cello were amplified to carry above the general heavy orchestration. Angella so aptly put it, "Every violinist's dream: to be plugged." Unfortunately, Maria's cello did not fare so well since her instrument's darker tone and lack to percussive attack did not cut through the rich mix of orchestral overtones. The fault is perhaps purely electronic and might be easily corrected.

Samuel Wong, appearing as guest conductor with the orchestra he led for nine years, directed the Ahn Trio and the Honolulu Symphony through a smooth-as-silk performance. It was as though they had played this music for decades rather than mere days. It would be hard to imagine a more sympathetic performance, and the audience rewarded the performers with a standing ovation and repeated curtain calls.

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"Three Questions Before the First Night"
Michael Gandolfi speaks to Carson Cooman
about his work Plain Song, Fantastic Dances

Composer Michael Gandolfi (b. 1956) has been an active presence in the Boston Massachusetts, USA area for a number of years and has been recently gaining increasing national attention for his works. He is a faculty member at the New England Conservatory and has been awarded many grants and commissions. Other recent projects include a saxophone concerto for Kenneth Radnovsky and the Boston Modern 8 Orchestra Project, a piano concerto for the London Sinfonietta, and a recently premiered orchestral work for the Tanglewood Music Center, where he also teaches.

Gandolfi's latest work, Plain Song, Fantastic Dances, was commissioned by the St. Botolph Club of Boston and will be premiered on October 23, 2005 by the Boston Symphony Chamber Players at Jordan Hall, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The work is scored for clarinet, horn, bassoon, violin, viola, cello, and contrabass -- in three movements, provisionally titled: 1) St. Botolph's Fantasia, 2) Tango Blue, and 3) Quick Step.

CC: The notes for your new work say that, because of the commission from the St. Botolph Club of Boston (and because St. Botolph himself lived during the reign of Pope Gregory), you used a Gregorian chant and a derived 13th century organum as source material for the piece. Do you often use source material of this sort for your work, and how do you find it structures your creative process?

MG: This is the first time that I've used Gregorian chant as source material for a piece. I've occasionally used other types of source material when I’ve felt that it was warranted by the commission or the circumstances relating to the conception of a given piece, but it is not a common practice of mine. In this case, the source material was chosen specifically to connect the piece to St. Botolph, via the music collected by Pope Gregory the Great, which I felt was an appropriate way to celebrate the St. Botolph Club's 125th anniversary, since they had commissioned the work. To be honest, I really didn't know much about the history of St. Botolph or the club before the project. During this research process, I learned that the followers of St. Botolph had named an English city in his honor, "Botolphston" which over the centuries linguistically morphed into "Boston." So, when the English settlers came to America and named this city 'Boston,' they were actually honoring St. Botolph by giving his metamorphosed name a prominent place in the New World. Thus, the connections all seemed very appropriate and compelling.

Regarding using external source materials in general, however, I recently was commissioned to write a tango for wind ensemble. I did much research ahead of that composition because I knew very little about tango. The ensuing composition Vientos y Tangos, has been quite successful and I am pleased with having been given that "assignment."

In 1996 I received a commission from the Boston Musica Viva to compose a chamber piece, Grooved Surfaces, in which I had been specifically asked to involve world music influences. I initially refused the commission, stating that other composers were far more qualified to write such a piece. But Richard Pittman, the director of Boston Musica Viva, insisted that I compose the piece and so eventually I acquiesced to his wishes. I'm pleased that Mr. Pittman was persistent.

For this piece I thought it would be appropriate to investigate West African music; I have an extensive background as a jazz guitarist and the link between West African music and American jazz is obviously strong.

I gathered recordings of Ghanaian music, and transcribed several drum ensemble pieces from them. In the process of doing those transcriptions, I found several rhythms and rhythmical techniques that I knew would serve well as the basis of a piece. The pitch material was my own, and unrelated to Ghanaian music, but the rhythms and rhythmical structures came from these transcriptions.

Thus, sometimes in these rare circumstances, where the commission specifically warrants it, I will go ahead and try to find external source material to generate a piece. In the case of Plain Song, Fantastic Dances, I hadn't been specifically asked to connect to St. Botolph. But I thought it might be interesting to do so -- and I found a way that was satisfying and fruitful.

CC: You're known for blending influences from popular and jazz music (and your own background in that area) with classical elements in your compositions. Does that figure at all into this new piece?

MG: Yes, it does. It's become such a part of my writing that I don't consciously make such choices anymore.

In this case, the second movement, (Tango Blue) has a groove quality that relates to my pop music roots. I wasn't thinking about writing a "tango" specifically, but I was preoccupied with writing a generally "bluesy" movement. The melodic lines unfold in this bluesy atmosphere. There is an underlying rhythm which has a tangential connection to a tango. This is not the Argentinean "nuevo tango" exemplified in Astor Piazzolla's music, but a more "filtered" tango, such as that found in Stravinsky's tangos, among others. Most importantly, the movement has a dance quality that I connect in an abstract way to the tango.

The last movement is fast and is scherzo-like at the outset, but soon breaks away from the lightness that one associates with a scherzo. The melodic profile in the expository section has folklike elements that one might hear as having traces of traditional Irish folk music.

I didn't set out to do that initially, but as I was writing, I felt the influence of these folk elements emerging and I simply welcomed the serendipity and spontaneity of the moment.

CC: Many of your recent compositional commissions have been orchestral pieces. Coming out of a period of so much orchestral work, do you find that your approach to chamber music is influenced by that?

MG: Interesting that you should ask that, as one little fear I perhaps have about this new piece is that it might be rather "orchestral" in its overall conception. Overall, it is definitely a piece of chamber music, and I don't worry that it won't succeed in performance as such. But once I finished the score, I found myself going back over it and thinking "Was I hearing an orchestral piece here and there?"

Chamber music exists in a conversational and intimate world. It's more personal and the instruments have more individual roles than they otherwise do in an orchestral piece. They typically don't combine into larger forces with the colorful and weighty sonorities that are typical in an orchestral piece.

But in this piece, there are instances, particularly in the first movement (and the very ending, where the first movement's material returns) which do feel orchestral in conception. I could easily imagine writing that "same" music for orchestra, in fact.

By contrast, the second movement is certainly more chamber-like than the first. The winds have those interlocking bluesy lines that I alluded to earlier and they coexist with the strings in an intimate chamber texture. The last movement as well is a pure piece of chamber music perhaps owing to its overall contrapuntal design.

But having said all of this, after finishing the entire work, I found myself wondering about how much the piece had been influenced by my recent orchestral works.

While I do think the piece succeeds as a true chamber piece, I must add that in writing a piece in the 7-14 instrument range, one begins to cross into a gray area that straddles the worlds of orchestral music and chamber music. This is never the case when writing a trio, a quartet, a quintet or even a sextet.

With seven or more instruments however, it's easy to find oneself, from time to time, thinking at some level in orchestral terms.

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An Interview with Dr. Albert Hurwit:
Composer & Radiologist

by Carson Cooman

American composer Albert Hurwit (b. 1931) graduated from Harvard University and Tufts Medical School. He trained and practiced as a radiologist for thirty years. He retired from his medical practice in 1986 in order to devote all of his energies to music composition.

His first large-scale work, Symphony No. 1, "Remembrance," has been recorded by the Bulgarian National Radio Orchestra under the direction of Michael Lankester and released on the MSR Classics label.

Hurwit's symphony is an extended, neo-romantic composition that traces, across its four movements (Origins, Separation, Remembrance, and Arrival) the journey of his ancestors across Europe & Russia, their separation, and eventual arrival in the United States.

For more information about Hurwit, or to find out more about the recording, visit his website at:

CC: Why did you decide to start pursuing composition?

AH: Music just started to bubble out of my soul. At night it would keep me up, and I'd have all these musical feelings going through me. It was a pragmatic decision. I was a physician at that time and had my own practice. When the last of my three children became self-sufficient, I realized that if I were going to "make a break", this was the time to do it. I was 55 years old and knew that there was a lot of learning ahead of me. If I put if off for too long, I was concerned that either intellectual status or time itself would preclude me going into composing seriously.

I started to compose part time while still working as a radiologist, but I was too compulsive. I felt I wasn't doing justice either to my medical practice or composition. So at that point, I thought I'd give a six month trial to being a composer exclusively. After six months, it became clear that, as much as I missed medicine (and I still do -- every day), composition was what was really more fulfilling for me.

CC: Were you doing any writing during the years that you were practicing radiology?

AH: Yes, in a way I've been composing since I was about 13 or 14. It was, however, in a very crude and Neanderthal manner. I took piano lessons for three years as a child but was a poor student. I had a pretty good ear and bluffed my way through as best I could. But to the present time, I really only read music probably as well as a second year piano student. I would often use a number or graphic system to reproduce what I had created musically. Then, I started to use stenographic tape recorders and other media to record the music.

CC: Your first symphony is a very autobiographical work, tracing your own family's ethnic and life history. Did you feel it was particularly important to be able to document these things musically in this way?

AH: Like with many things in my life, this came about by serendipity. I started to compose seriously in 1986 and at that point I really didn't know how to go about doing it. So I had no real thoughts then of a "symphony" or family history or such. I went to the head of composition at the Hartt School, Robert Carl, and he said that he thought I had some talent and should pursue studies -- but that it would take years of undergraduate and graduate training to learn the various musical skills. I felt I had been through that already as a physician, and that once was enough for one lifetime!

In those years, however, synthesizers and computer software programs started to become more common. So I bought the equipment, hooked it all up, and taught myself how to use it. Thus, I was able to record and print out my compositions and ideas in that form.

In 1997, I was driving in the car and the executive director of the Hartt Symphony Orchestra was on the radio saying that she wanted to get Hartford people more involved in the orchestra's activities. I saw that in their upcoming season they had cabaret singer Shirley Cook performing. I had written a cabaret piece, and so I called up the executive director and asked if she might want to see it. She told me to come by, and I played it for her. She thought it was terrific and wanted to immediately submit it to Shirley Cook.

While I was there, I said that I had also composed this five minute "Adagio" for orchestra. She said that the conductor, Michael Lankester, received hundreds of scores a year, and since I had no training or experience, it was unlikely that anything would come of that piece.

What happened was that Wally Harper, Cook's arranger, got the cabaret piece and thought it was too unconventional for her. But, a few weeks later, Michael Lankester called me and said he had the heard the synthesized version of my Adagio and wanted to perform it with the orchestra!

On the basis of that short piece, Lankester and other professionals thought I should compose a longer work. I had some beginnings of symphonies and things I was working on. So I prolonged one of those into a first movement of a potential new piece. In 2000, Lankester was leaving the Hartford Symphony, and I asked him to come over to my house and review what I had done. I asked him to listen and be totally and completely honest with me.

After hearing it, he told me that I had this massive symphony in me that needed to come out. He offered to help me in realizing the piece.

CC: Now that your symphony is completed and recorded, do you have plans or projects for other compositions?

AH: There are several and that's probably the problem. If I had only one, I'd be going full force on that, but I keep fiddling around with different things. I keep thinking about everything from another symphony to setting the poem "Annabel Lee" by Edgar Allen Poe. That is probably what I'll do next since I’ve done most of it already for piano and tenor.

I do have more symphonic music, but I don't plan try another symphony of quite that length (59 minutes), because it’s such an impractical thing to write such a huge piece and then get it performed or recorded.

CC: Do you have other compositions from before the symphony?

AH: Yes, I have hours and hours of music on my computer. Some are completed pieces and some are possibilities or ideas for things -- ranging from a few seconds to 10 or 15 minutes.

CC: Have there been any influences in your musical work from your work in medicine? AH: I'd say it's emotional. There is nothing really of a technical nature that inspired me.

But certainly, as with any physician, I have many "inspirational" stories of all kinds: of faith and trust and angst and horror. These stores are a part of me and, at some level, are also a part of the music.

Perhaps the only specific connection is that at times a physician has to put on the blinders and focus all energies on the critical task at hand. When I compose I also do that but also allow my subjective feelings become the primary part of the inspirational process.

Return to Index.

"Three Questions Before the First Night"
Peter Lieberson speaks to Carson Cooman
about his work Neruda Songs

(photo by Lorraine Hunt Lieberson) American composer Peter Lieberson (b. 1946) first became widely known when his extended Piano Concerto was premiered by the Peter Serkin and the Boston Symphony in 1983. Since then, he has composed a series of concerti, orchestral works, operas, and chamber music that are widely played and enjoyed by performers and audiences alike.

The son of the former president of Columbia Records (Goddard Lieberson) and ballerina Vera Zorina, Lieberson studied at Columbia and Brandeis Universities and taught at Harvard University. Since 1994, he has devoted himself exclusively to composition.

Lieberson's music and its subject matter is often influenced by Buddhist philosophy. He even served for a period as the international director of Shambhala Training in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He received special acclaim for his operas, Ashoka's Dream and King Gesar, both on subjects of ancient "enlightened" rulers. He has collaborated frequently with pianist Peter Serkin, composing three concerti for him, as well as numerous solo and chamber works.

Lieberson is currently completing a cantata for the New York Philharmonic and Chorus (with soloists Lorraine Hunt Lieberson, mezzo-soprano and Gerald Finlay, baritone). Entitled The World In Flower, it will be premiered in May 2006 and completes his cycle of "enlightened ruler" pieces. The work is inspired by Emperor Shotoku Taishi who first brought Buddhism to Japan.

Lieberson's latest completed large-scale work, Neruda Songs for voice and orchestra was jointly commissioned by the Los Angeles Philharmonic (who gave the first performances in May of 2005) and the Boston Symphony Orchestra. The Boston Symphony will thus give the second set of "world premiere" performances on November 25 & 26, 2005, under its music director James Levine, in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Lieberson's wife, American mezzo-soprano Lorraine Hunt Lieberson, will be the soloist.

CC: This new work is the second large song-cycle you've written for your wife, Lorraine Hunt Lieberson -- following the Rilke Songs (1997-2001). What was it like to write for someone who you know so very well?

PL: First of all, those two works were quite different cycles to compose. I was just getting to know Lorraine when I began the first of the five Rilke settings in 1997. I worked on them over a period of five years, and during that time, I became more and more familiar with Lorraine's voice. Thus, my understanding of how she sounded in specific registers became more and more clear. I really wrote this piece specifically for Lorraine's voice rather than for the mezzosoprano voice as a kind of defined instrument. Having the privilege of living with Lorraine and hearing her rehearse and perform many kinds of vocal music, I began to really appreciate what her individual voice was capable of doing.

CC: CC: How did you choose the poems of Neruda that you wished to set, and how does it feel as an American composer to approach the Spanish language poetry of Neruda?

PL: Setting German in the Rilke Songs was very different from setting Spanish. I was brought up with Rilke because my mother was a German speaker, and Lorraine is a Spanish speaker -- but I myself do not speak either language. Considering Rilke's complex use of the German language, I originally thought about setting a translation in English. However, with all due respect to the many great translators who have worked on it, there is no translation that truly captures Rilke. And of special significance to me, working with the original German suggested certain kinds of melodic lines that the English did not.

It was similar with the Spanish of Pablo Neruda. I spent about a year while I was doing other projects choosing the texts, because there are a hundred love sonnets of Neruda. I wanted to create a dramatic arc in the setting of the poems.

I finally narrowed it down to five. I had originally thought about using as many as eight. I wanted in the cycle to create a mirror of the very different faces of love that are present in all of us and that are also present in the Neruda love sonnets.

The last poem is very much about the nature of loss and separation from one’s beloved because sickness or death inevitably comes and one will be parted from one’s beloved. So, it’s a very bittersweet ending.

CC: CC: You've had a long and fruitful relationship with the Boston Symphony, who have commissioned a number of large works from you over the years -- Drala, the first two piano concertos, and now the Neruda Songs. What has it been like working with this orchestra all the various occasions over the years, and have you noticed changes in yourself or the orchestra over this time?

PL: I'm probably able to comment more on changes in myself than changes in the orchestra, although the orchestra certainly has changed. There are many people who are the same, but it has changed in overall character and many of the players are different. Most significantly of course, the conductor has recently changed. The first three commissions were under the direction of Seiji Ozawa. This new work will be presented under James Levine, the orchestra's new music director.

I would say that the period between composing the First Piano Concerto (1981-1983) and Drala (1986) was a time of really learning about the orchestra in general and the BSO in particular. My first piano concerto was actually my first piece for orchestra. I learned a tremendous amount in the context of having that work performed by the BSO. To then go back and write another piece for the same orchestra a few years later, I really felt as though I knew the sound of the orchestra and the sound of individual players.

Red Garuda (the second piano concerto; 1999) came quite a bit later. By that point, I certainly had a sense of what the orchestra's sound was, but it was less significant to my writing. By that point, I had changed my whole style of orchestration so that it was paired down and much more exposed. I felt I had learned how to get the same effects as before without using the entire orchestra all the time as I had done in earlier pieces such as the first piano concerto.

Return to Index.

An Interview with Dr. Franklin Ashdown:
Composer & Internist

by Carson Cooman

American composer Franklin D. Ashdown (b. 1942) has, for over three decades, pursued parallel careers as both a medical doctor (internist) and a composer. He is also an organist, having studied with Judson Maynard and James Drake, and coached with Fred Tulan and Leonard Raver.

As a composer, he has focused primarily on choral and organ music, with numerous published compositions that are frequently performed and recorded. His works have been heard in venues ranging from the Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City, Utah to St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, England. His works are published by the leading publishers in sacred music today including H.W. Gray, Sacred Music Press, MorningStar Music Publishers, Wayne Leupold Editions, Harold Flammer, Augsburg-Fortress, Concordia, and others.

As a doctor, he earned his M.D. from University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas. He has had a private practice in internal medicine in Alamogordo, New Mexico since 1971.

CC: When you were growing up, did you always intend to have a dual career with music and medicine together?

FA: No. I really had very little idea of what a musician's life was all about, because I had no role models among professional musicians. I loved music very much, but I really had no notion of doing it professionally.

I was "programmed" to be a doctor from the time I was about five years old. Both sides of my family really encouraged me to go into medicine. My father was a university professor and my mother was a nutritionist, so both of them came from the world of biological sciences.

Thus, with that background, I had never really considered going into any other profession from the time I was a little child until the time I was in college.

CC: Did you study composition formally with anybody?

FA: I never took any formal composition lessons. I had an excellent piano teacher all through high school who gave me a good background in theory and harmony. But not until after I had already written a number of things, I seek any composition coaching.

CC: Did you start composing fairly early on?

The first thing I ever wrote was a fight song for my high school when I was as senior. However, I didn't write anything else until I was 29 -- when I wrote out an organ piece.

When I was in college, I took my first studied organ. I had an excellent background in piano but had become very intrigued with the organ. Thus, undergraduate years included many organ lessons.

When I got into medical school, I spent a lot of my weekends learning organ literature as kind of respite from medicine studies. When I finished medical school in Dallas, I moved up to Salt Lake City. During my residency there, I resumed taking private organ lessons.

In Salt Lake, I had an organ teacher who heard me improvise and encouraged me to start scoring things out and actually begin composing seriously. I started doing that, and became quickly hooked on it. I haven't stopped since then.

CC: Do you improvise frequently?

FA: I improvise organ preludes quite a bit in church. When I sit down to compose -- particularly if it's free-style piece -- I often begin by improvising some musical threads with which to work.

CC: Have there been any influences in your musical work from your work in medicine?

FA: I can’t really say that my medical work has specifically influenced my composing or the choices of music that I like.

But the medical specialty that I went into does have a connection in music, I think. I'm a specialist in internal medicine, which is mostly a diagnostic discipline. It involves sitting back and thinking and listening carefully to the patients. So, it very much involves critical listening skills. We internists listen to patients describe their symptoms and their pains. Then, after listening carefully, one draws all the threads together to make a diagnosis.

In musical composition, many of the same intellectual skills are brought together -- critical listening to draw various strands of melody, harmony, and rhythm together into a coherent work.

Perhaps it's a function of my personality that I am drawn to "cognitive" work in medicine and to composing as my preferred form of musical expression.

As a more specific connection, a recent organ piece, Scenes from the Life of a Doctor, is inspired specifically by images connected to my medical practice. It was written for Wayne Leupold Edition's "organ demonstrator" series, in which each piece has a movement connected to each family of organ sounds, and also inspired by a different medical image. For example, The first vignette, "The Birth of Billy Taggart," describes in musical imagery my first delivery as a junior medical student. The piece begins somewhat nervously, but ends with the sunny delight that such an experience evokes. Another vignette, "Dysrhythmia," recalls a a patient critically afflicted with an erratic heart rhythm and utilizes low-pitched pedal sounds to suggest the heart tones a doctor typically hears.

CC: Do many of your patients know that you are also a composer?

FA: A few of them do. I would say the vast majority just know that I'm involved with playing the organ and directing choirs. They don't know much about my compositional activities.

CC: Have you found or encountered many other medical professionals who are also practicing musicians or composers themselves?

FA: At the American Guild of Organists conventions, I've encountered a few of them. I haven't really met any here in New Mexico.

For example, the organist and composer George Baker started out as primarily a musician, and earned his doctorate in organ. Then, he went to the medical school (the same one I did!) and eventually became a dermatologist. He's now recently retired from his medical practice and has returned to being a concert organist and full-time musician.

I'm also aware of opthamalogist in New York City, Hampson Sisler, who composes both for organ and other instrumentations.

CC: What are your current/upcoming projects?

FA: I'm currently writing a lot of choral music. Some use texts from the psalms and others various old texts that I find very appealing.

I've also very recently written a free-style organ piece entitled Fantasia Navidenia Antigua. It is toccata-like work based upon the idea of an old Spanish Christmas fantasy. It incorporates some small quotations from "Riu, riu, chiu" -- the familiar Spanish folk carol.

CC: What was your first publication as a composer?

My first publication was a piece called Funambulistasia. A "funambulist" is a tightrope walker. The piece was written for the noted organist Leonard Raver, who at one time planned to do a Broadway production involving the organ. He even thought the live show might actually involve an actual a tight-rope walker! The resulting piece is very dramatic -- quite atonal, and almost aleatoric, and wild.

CC: It's interesting that your first publication was for such an "avant-garde" style organ work, since you are best known for your many compositions in a more conservative contemporary musical idiom.

The reason why I wrote the piece that way is because I had just been to the Hartt School of Music Organ Festival in 1974 ([a summer festival of new avant-garde organ music each summer in the 1970's]). I had thus been saturated with that sort of avant-garde organ music and wanted to compose that kind of piece.

In the years that followed, I decided that I prefer to write more traditionally.

CC: When did your relationship begin with the noted organ publisher H. W. Gray?

I wrote a piece called Elegy and it was premiered in the 1985 Regional AGO convention at the Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City. H. W. Gray published that piece in 1986, which was my first publication with them.

Since then, they've published about one piece a year of mine, and I've had a very nice relationship with them.

CC: You've mentioned to me that you plan to retire from medicine in a few years. What are your plans at that point?

FA: I plan to retire from my medical practice in 2007. I will then devote my time entirely to composition.

In particular, I'd like to write more works outside the choral and organ world. I've written a few pieces of that sort in the past (an orchestral triptych and an organ concerto), but I want to explore many of the other musical forms.

Member News

Members of the Living Music Foundation are encouraged to send news of their activities to the editor for inclusion in this section of the journal.

Daniel Adams is the author of "Rhythm and Timbre as Interdependent Structural Elements in Askell Masson's Compositions for Solo Snare Drum", an article published in the Summer 2005 (Vol.LIII, No.4) issue of the Journal of the National Association of College Wind and Percussion Instructors. Adams's composition entitled Dissolve for percussion ensemble was performed at the national conference of Society of Composers, Inc. held at the University of North Carolina, Greensboro on October 14. The work was performed by the UNCG Percussion Ensemble conducted by Nathan Daughtrey. Reverberations for timpani solo was performed on February 26 by Eric Miculka at the Society of Composers Region VI Conference, hosted by the University of Texas at San Antonio. Reverberations was also performed at the University of South Florida on March 5 by Matt Dickson on his graduate recital. Between for flute and marimba was performed on March 12 by Valerie Watts, flute and Lance Drege, marimba at the College usic Society South Central Regional Chapter Meeting , hosted by the University of Oklahoma, Norman. Resonant Canvass for multiple percussion solo was premiered by percussionist Brian Vogel at Rice University on April 24 as part of his doctoral recital. Equilateral for triangle trio was premiered by the California State University at Long Beach Percussion Ensemble on April 26 under the direction of David Gerhart. Between Stillness and Motion for piano solo was premiered by pianist Jeri-Mae Astolfi at the University of Central Arkansas at Conway on April 22. Ms. Astolfi also performed the piece at the Russell Fine Arts center on the Campus of Henderson State University (Arkadelphia, Arkansas) on April 29.

Three CDs of the music of composer Beth Anderson have been released within the past two years -- "Peachy Keen --O" on the Pogus label, "Swales and Angels" on New World Records, and most recently, "Quilt Music" on Albany Records. Her work continues to receive many performances around the world each year.

A number of new works by Barton Cummings were premiered this past concert season, including Three Episodes for Contrabass Saxophone and Band by Jay C. Easton and the University of Washington-Seattle Wind Ensemble, under the direction of Timothy Saltzman. A number of his works were published this year by Wiltshire Music Company, JPM Music Publishers, and Solid Brass Music Company. Cummings was honored by the International Tuba-Euphonium Association with an in-depth interview and cover story in the Winter issue of the ITEA Journal. The interview was conducted by Mark Nelson and covers more than 40 years of Cummings’ musical activities.

The winners of the 2005 Hultgren Solo Cello Works Biennial competition (directed by member Craig Hultgren) for composers are Nickitas J. Demos and Michael Angell. Demos' Tonoi IV for solo electric cello won both the $1,000 Birmingham Prize and the $1,000 Atlanta Prize. Angell’s Sonata for Cello and Tape won the $500 Tuscaloosa Prize.

Cellist Craig Hultgren presented the same program of seven cello works on August 28th at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, September 13th at Georgia State University and September 20th at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. These seven pieces were finalists selected from 115 submissions from 27 different countries. The Biennial was open to submission by living composers of solo cello music or cello and electronics. The audience in attendance at the each concert voted to select the winners.

This was the fourth set of Solo Cello Works Biennial concerts which are organized every two years. A review panel from the Birmingham Art Music Alliance choose this year's finalists last May. The panel's criteria for selection were innovative writing, instrumental playability, and compositional craft. The seven finalists for the 2005 Biennial were:

Break-Out a miniature for solo cello by Katy Abbott (Northcote, Australia)
Sonata for Cello & Tape by Michael Angell (Birmingham, Alabama)
Tonoi IV for solo electric cello by Nickitas J. Demos (Atlanta, Georgia)
Più mesto for 2-bow cello by Carlo Forlivesi (Imola, Italy)
Voices from the Gorge for cello & tape with backprojected images by Stephen Gard (Thirlmere, Australia)
Stigmata for solo violoncello by Vincent Chee- Yung Ho (Calgary, Canada)
Everything is Permitted for solo cello by Robert Percy (Twickenham, United Kingdom)

Nickitas J. Demos, founder and Artistic Director of the neoPhonia New Music Ensemble, is Associate Professor of Music at Georgia State University. He holds degrees in music from the Cleveland Institute of Music, Indiana University and the University North Carolina. He has received performances by many major orchestras including the Cleveland Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Nashville Chamber Orchestra and the Orchestra of St. Luke’s. North/South Consonance, Thámyris, the Rialto Brass Quintet and the Converse College Brass Quintet have performed his chamber music works. Tonoi IV is part of a series of works for solo performers. The piece is abstract in nature, having no particular programmatic idea. The piece is typical of the previous works in the series in that the harmonic and melodic material presented at the beginning are used and developed throughout. Because of the electric nature of the instrument, effects processing plays a critical role in the composition. The piece was written for Hultgren.

Michael Angell is Associate Professor of Music Technology and Associate Chair at the University of Alabama at Birmingham where he is founder and director of the the Computer Music Ensemble. An energetic organizer, he was a founding member and initial president of the Birmingham Art Music Alliance. He has received awards from the International Trumpet Guild, ASCAP and the Alabama State Council on the Arts. The Sonata for Cello and Tape was written for Hultgren. It combines computer generated and manipulated sounds with live cello performance. The work is in a cyclic form containing five continuous movements of different moods. The fourth movement is for cello alone. The two short interludes are for computer-generated sounds alone. The third movement introduces a video montage and contains a soundscape over which the soloist freely improvises gestures. Descriptive titles given for the separate movements are strictly the composer’s personal images. The work is not intended to be programmatic.

Jeffrey Hoover's work Sacred Stones was performed by Ronald L. Caravan, alto axophone and Sar Shalom Strong, piano at Syracuse University on February 20. The work includes various extended performance techniques, including multiphonics, altered tone color fingerings, and quartertones. Sacred Stones was written for Ronald L. Caravan. This concert was a part of the Syracuse University Year of the American Composer Series Concert, and included works by three regional New York composers as well a new work by Ronald L. Caravan. Duo Ahlert & Schwab (Daniel Ahlert and Brigit Schwab) performed American Tango, for mandolin and guitar, in Meingetten, Germany on February 25.

American Tango was also performed by Duo Ahlert & Schwab at Illinois Central College, East Peoria on April 29, as part of their United States tour. Kenneth Martinson, viola and Christopher Taylor, piano, performed Latin Steps at Illinois Central College, East Peoria, on March 18, for the ICC Subscription Series, and also at Western Illinois University on March 25. The Journal of the American Viola Society published a review, written by Kenneth Martinson, of Latin Steps and Evocation (viola and piano) in their Fall, 2003 issue. Spirit of Light, for solo clarinet, was performed on a CUBE concert at the Lutheran Theological Seminary in Chicago on February 13. The work, inspired by Gregorian chants, was performed by Christie Vohs, clarinetist for CUBE. Five Mysteries for clarinet and CD was performed by Michael Dean at Southeastern Missouri State University on February 17. The clarinet version was created for Michael Dean. The work is also available for soprano saxophone, CD and paintings.

Joseph Pehrson's composition Trump-it! for trumpet and piano was performed at the Philharmonic Hall in Trenton, Italy on May 19, 2005. Pehrson's work Bass Desires was performed by on the Tonmeister Summer Concerts on June 16, 2005, sponsored by New York University's Composition Department and Dinu Ghezzo.

Volume VII of Margaret Vardell Sandresky's complete organ works has been published by Wayne Leupold Editions, Inc. Her organ concerto Dialogues for Organ and Strings, Christmas Variations on "Lo, How a Rose E're Blooming" for organ and band , and Fantasia for Organ and Brass Quintet will be published by E. C. Schimer. Sandresky was named Composer of the Year by the American Guild of Organists in 2004. She is currently working on two new projects: a volume of moderately difficult organ music for the liturgical year and a large work for the 18th century organ which has just been restored in Old Salem, North Carolina.

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Volume 20, No.2
copyright 2005
Charles Norman Mason (Executive Director)
ISSN: 8775-092X
P.O. Box 549033, Birmingham, AL 35254

Editor: Carson Cooman

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Background music is "Dorian Diversion" by Helen Stanley [ASCAP] © 1997
all right reserved

Download FREE. Please notify the composer.
dorian1.MID was orchestrated by D. Winenger on Trax for Yamaha CBX-T3 synthesizer

This page last updated 05/18/06

Visitors to this page since December 15, 1998.